Brigantine «Old». Project for the construction of a yacht
|Basic data of the yacht|
|Overall length (with bowsprit), m||10,00|
|The length of the case is the largest, m||8,65|
|KVL length, m||7,00|
|Overall width (with channels), m||3,26|
|The width of the case is the largest, m||2,96|
|KVL width, m||2,55|
|Sail area — brigantine, sq. m.||52|
|Sail area — schooner, sq. m.||45|
|Falshkil weight, kg||1000|
|Freeboard height (by bulwark)
in the bow — amidships — aft, m
The development and appearance of such an unusual yacht project are due to the widespread interest of sailing enthusiasts in maritime antiquity. A small and shallow-sitting (draft of 1.5 m), but sufficiently seaworthy cruising yacht, designed for long voyages of a crew of 8-9 people, has been given some features characteristic of sailing ships of the XVIII — early XIX century — the heyday of the sailing fleet. At the same time, the project provides for the use of modern materials and housing construction, as well as technological techniques used today.
The yacht project does not have any specific prototype, but when developing a theoretical drawing, the contours of small and high-speed North American schooners were taken as a basis. As for the sailing armament, the «Old» can be equipped with one of two options — a brigantine (schooner-brig) or a schooner.
The brigantines of the past were distinguished by a good course on full courses, tacked satisfactorily and, giving a wide opportunity to vary the sails, were convenient when sailing with a small crew.
The attractive sides of the second option — the schooner are higher tacking qualities, ease of sail control, lower weight of the mast and rigging than that of the brigantine. However, at full courses, the schooners are clearly inferior to the brigantines in speed.
Any of these options can be implemented without major alterations of the hull and mast: the columns of the masts, the bowsprit and their standing rigging are exactly the same.
When developing a shared location yachts the goal was to provide the comfort necessary for long voyages. There are nine berths in two salons; the yacht is equipped with a galley and a latrine, auxiliary rooms and sufficient volumes to accommodate stocks.
|The general location of the brigantine «Old»
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A — forepeak (anchor rope box); B — forward forecastle; C — hold; G — latrine; D — vestibule; E — galley; W — buffet; I — gas cylinder compartment; K — aft cabin; L — cockpit; M — afterpick.
1 — sofa (single bed); 2 — sofa (double); 3 — sofa backs — hanging bunks; 4 — wardrobe; 5 — shelf; 6 — hinged table; 7 — buffet; 8 — drawers; 9 — toilet; 10 — pump; 11 — galley table; 12 — gimbal; 13 — lifting folding table — part of the sofa; 14 — poliki; 15 — steering wheel; 16 — entrance hatch; 17 — niche; 18 — shelf closed; 19 — ladder; 20 — steering wheel feather; 21 — place for stationary engine.
Strong bulkheads divide the ship into six compartments. Due to the small volume of the sharp bow, the forepeak is used only as a chain box, where the anchor ropes of both anchors are folded. You can get here through a manhole located in the cabinet of the bow cabin, and the compartment is ventilated through the clews.
The forward cabin — forecastle turned out to be quite spacious: its length is 2.45 m; the passage between the sofas has a width of 1.1 m in the stern and 0.3 m at the foremast. The height to the basement is 1.60 m. There are two wardrobes and two sofas with padded backs, which, if hung on hinges to the side, easily turn into additional beds. The length of all these four beds is at least 1900 mm with a width from 550 mm (in the head) to 400 mm (in the legs). Thus, four people can get a rest in the forward forecastle.
It is better to make the table removable here by hanging it to the mast. At the shp. 1/2 bulkhead, two shelves are built in between the cabinet and the sides. The lower ones can be used for storing books or installing a small-sized receiver, the upper ones are a continuation of suspended bunks. The forecastle is illuminated through the transparent entrance hatch cover and portholes in the bulkheads, ventilated through the blinds of the entrance guard and bollard fans located on the sides.
The compartment between shp. 4 and 6 (hold) is designed for the installation of a stationary engine, placement of batteries, storage of sails, cables and other ship's property. Here, on the right side, a buffet and a compartment for gas cylinders are fenced off. You can get into the hold through the hatch located on the starboard side. To reduce the dimensions of a similar ladder, a bracket ladder can be installed on the sideboard of the buffet. The hold is illuminated and ventilated through the entrance hatch, which is closed with a lattice lid.
The galley compartment, located between shp. 6 and 7, includes three rooms separated by longitudinal bulkheads. On the starboard side there is a galley with dimensions of 600 mm in length and 900 mm in width of the vessel. The height of the basement here is 1.60 m. A galley table made of plywood covered with linoleum or plastic is permanently fixed to the side in this room. The length of the compartment makes it possible to integrate a small dishwasher into this table, which is closed during cooking with a lid — a sliding sheet of plastic.
A two-burner gas stove in a gimbal is located above the table. The stove is connected to the gas cylinders located behind the bulkhead on shp. 6 by a flexible hose (it should not limit the rocking of the tile in the suspension).
In the bulkhead 6 shp. a window is cut into the buffet, the upper part of which, closed by sliding doors made of plexiglass, plastic or plywood, is intended for storing dishes. There are built-in food boxes at the bottom.
In the bulkhead on shp. 7, it is also worth making a 250x300 mm closing window, which will serve to transfer cooked food directly from the galley to the aft cabin. A dish dryer can be hung from the same bulkhead. Natural lighting of the galley is provided through a porthole in the bulkhead on shp. 6. Ventilation is carried out through an exhaust fan-bollard.
There is a latrine on the left side, equipped with a toilet with a pumping diaphragm pump installed under the payoles and powered by a pedal. The head has dimensions of 600x850 with a room height of 1.50 m.
The length of the aft cabin is 1.85 m with a passage width of 400-500 mm. The height at the entrance is 1.55 m. There are two sofas located here. The lifting folding table, when lowered, tightly closes the cutout in the U-shaped sofa on the starboard side, turning it into a double bed with a width of 1.15 m at the headboard and 0.40 m at the feet.
In the afterpeak bulkhead on shp. 9½ cutouts are made in the upper side corners, giving access to the side niches of the afterpeak. In the middle of the height of the bulkhead on the sides of the cabinet there are windows closed with sliding shutters into the space under the cockpit.
The aft cabin is ventilated through exhaust fans-bollards; fresh air is supplied from the blinds of the embedded board of the aft cap through the vestibule. The light in the cabin penetrates through the windows located in the sides of the ship.
The cockpit, located at the transom, has a length of 0.75 m with a width of 1.40 m. There are seats for the helmsman on the side sections of the deck, but it will be convenient to control the steering wheel while standing.
The hull structure is designed taking into account the use of bakelized or aviation plywood for cladding. It should be noted that of all the brands of bakfanery, only FBS plywood according to GOST 11539-65 can be considered completely waterproof. The fact is that the most common FBV bakfanera is made on water-soluble resins and therefore worse. It should be noted that the BS-1 aircraft plywood according to GOST 102-49 is also less water-resistant than FBS plywood.
The housing set is designed according to the longitudinal-transverse system. Powerful longitudinal ties (oak keel, zygomatic and rest bars) are supported by strong plywood bulkheads; there are no frames as such.
The cross sections of the set beams, the thickness of the skin and the dimensions of other body parts are specified in the specification for the structural drawing. The material for the manufacture of parts of the set is indicated as desirable. With any replacement, it should be borne in mind that the cross-section of the parts must also be changed depending on the volumetric weight of the material actually used. In all cases, the value specified in the specification must not be violated
γF = const,
where γ is the volume weight of wood, g/cm³; F is the cross—sectional area, cm².
For example, for the manufacture of the keel, you could not get the oak or ash beams provided for in the drawing (the volumetric weight of these materials is the same and is equal to 0.72 g/cm). We have to use pine, the volume weight of which is 0.56 g/cm. The cross section of the oak keel is on average 20X20 cm, so its
γF =0,72 • 400 = 288
It follows that the cross-sectional area of the pine keel should be
F1 = 288/0.56 = 514.3 cm²
Keeping the shape of the keel cross-section unchanged (square), we get the thickness and height of the pine keel equal
a = √F1 = √ 514.3 = 22.7 cm²
In principle, when changing the dimensions of the sections of parts, it is desirable first of all to increase the vertical dimensions that increase the moment of inertia of the connection (of course, if the design of the node or other conditions allow it).
The housing assembly technology has been developed taking into account its maximum simplification.
With a full-size breakdown of the theoretical drawing, small inaccuracies may be revealed. It is likely that the plaz ordinates after the alignment of the projections may differ from the tabular ones by about ±3 mm. On the plaza breakdown, it is necessary to draw the most important structural elements of the hull — the stem, keel, stern, button and starnknitsa, bulkheads (taking into account the thickness of plywood).
|Theoretical drawing of the brigantine «Old»
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Table of the Old brigantine's plaz ordinates
|frame no.||Heights from OL, mm||Half-width from DP, mm|
|Keel||Shp.||Sk. I||Sk. II||lb||fb||Sk. I||Sk. II||lb||fb|
|Structural drawing of the housing and bookmark
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1 — stem δ=200, oak; 2 — keel δ=200, oak; 3 — stern δ=100, oak; 4 — button δ=200, oak; 5 — starnknitsa δ=100, oak; 6 — knyavdiged δ=100, oak; 7 — falshkil 100x200, oak; 8 — zygomatic and rest bars 75x150, pine; 9 — bulwark beam 75x100; 10 — bottom lining δ=10; 11 — zygomatic belt lining δ=10; 12 — side lining δ=7; 13 — bulwark δ=7; 14 — deck δ=7; 15 — bulkheads δ=7; 16 — fences δ=5; 17 — flooring sofas δ=5; 18 — bulkhead binding 50x75, pine; 19 — knits of bulkheads δ=50; 20 — flora δ=50, oak; 21 — steps δ=200, oak; 22 — transom δ=10; 23 — brechtuki δ=30, oak; 24 — pyartners δ=30, oak; 25 — pillows δ=30, oak; 26 — horizontal knits δ=30, oak; 27 — beams 50x75, pine; 28 — reinforced beams 75x75, pine; 29 — strapping fences 30x50; 30 — strapping sofas and suspended bunks 30x50; 31 — lining of bulkhead cutouts δ=30, oak; 32 — beams of knavdiged flooring δ=50, oak; 33 — longitudinal slats of knavdiged flooring 50x30, oak; 34 — bulwark of knavdiged flooring δ=30, oak; 35 — channel δ=20, oak; 36 — channel knits δ=50, oak; 37 — channel support 30x50, oak; 38 — transom knits δ=50, oak; 39 — bulwark gunwale δ=20, oak; 40 — nedgeds 100x100; 41 — shelf 50x25; 42 — metal falshkil 100x225, steel, cast iron; 43 — bolts falshkil M12; 44 — bolts bookmarks M10; 45 — bolts florov M8; 46 — bolts fastening knits, M8; 47 — screw 5x36; 48 — screw 5x45.
|Deck set and cross sections
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Explanation of the positions — see fig. A structural drawing of the housing and a bookmark.
Begin the manufacture of the hull with the assembly of the bookmark (keel with rods) and bulkheads. These nodes are usually assembled according to templates taken from the plaza, or directly on the plaza.
The stem is cut out of the beam with a section of 200x225. If there is no timber of this cross-section, you will have to take boards or smaller bars and glue the necessary package out of them. In extreme cases, if there is no glue, all the components of the package should be riveted together with rivets d=5-6 mm with a step of no more than 150 mm.
The minimum estimated keel size in height is 200 mm. The rest of its dimensions are obtained by connecting the inner edge of the keel in a straight line from the minimum cross sections at the extremities. When assembling the keel, it is important to ensure the high quality of the locks — connections of its individual components. In this case, it is usually allowed only to extend the acceleration — the length of the lock without changing the other dimensions specified in the drawing. The parts of the keel themselves, as well as the stem, can be composite (glued).
It is possible to make glued and the entire bookmark as a whole. The stem is glued out of boards up to 15 mm thick, the keel is made of two-inch boards; at the same time, it is not necessary to steam the workpieces for bending along the tsulage.
The keel and stem can be connected «on the mustache» by gluing when the joint accelerates at least 2 m. In this case, it will be possible to do without the button. When assembling a bookmark, a starnknit is immediately installed on it.
When assembling the transverse bulkheads, the plywood sheets cut out according to the plaz data are installed with strapping and flora. On the bulkheads of shp. 1/2, 6 and 9, the binding should protrude beyond the contour of the bulkhead by the amount of malka, which should also be removed from the plaza. At a height of 1500 mm from the hull of the vessel on all bulkheads from the side free from strapping, shergenya from rails with a cross section of 50x75 are nailed. Cutouts for the passage of the longitudinal set are immediately cut out in the bulkheads. The subtlety is such that it is better to make these cutouts somewhat smaller (in the light) than the sections of the beams themselves.; this will ensure the possibility of a tight fit in place — during the final assembly of the case.
On the slipway, a bookmark, bulkheads and a transom are first exposed, then they adjust and put the halting, zygomatic and bulwark bars. The entire longitudinal set and the bookmark are connected to the bulkhead binding with M10 bolts.
|Construction of the slipway for yacht assembly
1 — bar 150x200; 2 — bar 200x200; 3 — shergen; 4 — bulkhead; 5 — nails with a diameter of 3 mm.
Now templates are removed from the exposed set for cutting sheets of the lining of the bottom and zygomatic belts, sides and bulwarks. The sheets of each belt are joined in advance by gluing «on the mustache» with a length of at least 12 thicknesses of plywood. If the docking is performed on a backing strip (with or without glue), the width of the strip, usually cut from the same plywood as the sheets being joined, should be at least 25 thicknesses.
When gluing backfans, the surfaces to be joined must be cleaned until the bakelite varnish is completely removed, which prevents adhesion — adhesion of glue particles. When joining plywood without the use of glue, the joint must be riveted with copper rivets d=3-4 mm in a staggered order with a step of rivets and a distance between rows of no more than 50 mm and with mandatory greasing with thickly rubbed paint.
Sheathing sheets are usually painted with a small (30-50 mm) allowance, which is removed when fitting a pre-assembled belt according to a set. The belts of the skin are installed and attached to the set, starting from the bottom and ending with the bulwarks, alternately on the right and left sides. The skin is attached to the keel with 5x36 screws in 70 mm increments; to other longitudinal ties with 5x45 screws in 100 mm increments, to the bulkhead binding with the same screws at the rate of each belt with four screws in each timber.
It is better to put the skin on a waterproof glue or on thickly rubbed whitewash. When using whitewash, all cheekbones from the outside must be upholstered with copper strips 1.5x50 on copper nails 2x40 or pasted with strips of fiberglass. The best option would be pasting the entire case.
Knyavdiged and wooden falshkil are assembled separately from the case according to templates taken from the plaza. The drawing shows the assembly of these parts only on bolts with a slip of whitewash. If glue is used, the number of bolts can be reduced threefold, limiting them to the number necessary for reliable pressing of the glued parts.
When the installation of the skin is completed, strings indicating DP are stretched in the hull along the deck and roof of the cabin. On the halting and bulwark beams, the position of the beams is marked (taking into account their thickness); shelves are installed on the halting beams. Beams are cut out according to templates from the plaza, and the position of the DP is necessarily marked on them. At the ends, the height of the beams should be reduced to 50 mm. The upper edge of the beam is usually given an allowance of about 10 mm, at the ends — 50 mm.
Some difficulty is the embedding of the ends of the beams into the support bars. Usually they start with the fact that the blanks of the beams are laid out in their places, but in an inverted position, making sure that the risk of DP on the beams exactly coincides with the string. On the upper edge of each beam (which in this position will be at the bottom), the position of the inner edge of the longitudinal support beams is taken out. Then the beams are removed. From the available drawings, a preliminary marking of the length of the mortise parts is made, which should be equal to 60 mm along the bulwarks and 40 mm along the shelf. The beams are installed in place (in the normal position). In the inner edge of the support beam, a ruler is applied vertically (usually this is done from the side where the edge of the beam is shorter), and the beams are moved so that the ruler coincides with the mark of the position of the edge of the beam on the upper edge. Now the line of the inner edge of the inset is drawn along the ruler on the beams and the ends of the beams are cut off according to the markup.
|Fitting the ends of the beams to the privalny beam
a — tracing of beams 2 along the inner edge of the beam 1; b — marking of the mortise part at the ends of the beams; c — transfer of the marking to the side of the beams facing inside the body; d — cutting the end of the beams.
With the help of a compass, the dimensions of the spikes at the ends of the beams (the height and length of the spike and the thickness of the beams) are transferred to the appropriate places of the support beams; according to the marking, they make cuts and hollow out the nests with the expectation of a final fit when installing the beams. The ends of the beams are fixed in the sockets with 5x45 screws.
All cutouts for hatches in the deck are made out with carlengs and half-beams, which cut into the support beams in the same way as the beams.
According to the drawing, all horizontal deck knits, turners and cushions are installed, which are fastened with M8 through bolts to the beams and the longitudinal set.
When the deck set is installed, cut out the deck flooring sheets and fasten them with 5x45 screws along the contour in 70 mm increments in staggered order, and along the beams in 200 mm increments. Individual flooring sheets are joined in the same way as the sheathing sheets.
About the decoration, equipment and sailing armament of the yacht «Old» see here.
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